|Plosive||p, b||t, d||č, j||k, g|
|Fricative||f, v||s, z||š, ž||x, ǧ|
(velar is sometimes realized palatally and uvularly)
Syllables take the form (C)V(C). Note, this implies that only word-internal clusters are permitted. Words are sylabified according to the following algorithm:
Charmid exhibits left-edge weight sensitive stress. Closed syllables (i.e. those with a heavy consonant in the coda), are considered heavy, while open syllables are considered light.
Stress falls on the first syllable, unless the first is light and the second is heavy, in which case the second syllable gets primary stress.
The patientive case marks the object of transitive sentences.
The agentive case marks the subject of transitive sentences.
The genitive is used to indicate a noun modifies another.
It can be used to indicate possession:
It can be used to indicate source:
It can be used to indicate composition:
The instrumental indicates the instrument or means by which an action was completeted.
The locative is used to describe the location of a noun.
Certain prepositions also take the locative.
The lative case marks a source or movement towards.
Certain prepositions take the lative to describe movement.
Used when calling someone’s name, or refering to them.
Plural nouns are formed by mutating vowels and adding an optional prefix. The vowel mutation causes vowels to be raised in a regular fashion. The pluralizing mutation is asymmetrical between back and front vowels, and preserves rounding. The plural prefix is I-.
The dual is formed by using the singular form of the noun and appending -lAr.
Revamping verbal agreement:
Agentive / Patientive marking.
Suffix for person, prefix for number.
Tense is marked on the verb as a prefix:
|Present||∅-||rupočok - “It is red”|
|Past||I-||ipábon - “I sat”|
|Future||U-||usefon - “I will eat”|
The present tense can be a continuous state, a gnomic statement.
|Abilitive||bUl-||to be able to||Bulosod pesï. —- “The woman can see”|
|Dubative||šEg-||Šogsávukod —- “He might remember”|
|Necessative||EdA-||Odapabod aye gürabït. —- “He must sit in temple”|
|Optative||zUt-||to wish||Zütžïveš ján šüd. —- “may you live a long life”|
|Mirative||mUš-||Müšmïnačeš —- “Look how thin you are!”|
|Desiderive||IštE-||to want||Ïšteyensefedix xïf ïvïž —- “I want you to eat these fish”|
The interrogative is formed by the suffix -s(E) to the verb.
Neutral polar questions are formed by adding the interrogative suffix to a statement without any question words.
Affirmative polar questions are formed with the clause initial question tag word wá, while negative polar questions are formed with the clause initial tag word nes.
Answering polar questions generally uses one of the following response words (however, the question may be answered by an elliptical sentance in the indicative for additional clarity.)
Á - affirmative response to affirmative questions.
Ni - negative response to affirmative & negative questions.
Áši - affirmative response to negative questions.
Mü - a more complicated response which essentially means that the question has no suitable answer. It can be used to reject the premise of the question, or reject a dualistic response.
Content questions are formed from the interrogative by adding a question word (akin to wh-words in english) in their normal place in the sentence.
|Derived Verb Form:||Gerund||Participle||Converb|
Word order is strictly Verb Object. That is to say the orders VSO (most common), SVO (not uncommon), VOS (least common).
si^g - shallow kynyz - prince lol - absurd
Need honorific & humble ones
generation from ego Maternal/Paternal gender of the relative relative age of siblings (older, younger)
|Wife||kitin (only speaker)|
|Father’s Older Brother||bobat||boba|
|Father’s Younger Brother||^z”ib”at||^z”iba|
|Father’s Older Sister||g”umar||g”uma|
|Father’s Younger Sister||g”uje||g”uje|
|Mother’s Older Brother|
|Mother’s Younger Brother|
|Mother’s Older Sister|
|Mother’s Younger Sister|
batU”vi”pa, ayezh minarit, sateresh jimesh Our father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name.