cody jh veal


  1. Phonology
    1. Consonantal Phoneme Inventory
    2. Vowel Inventory
    3. Vowel Harmony
    4. Consonantal Allophony
    5. Phonotactics
    6. Prosody
  2. Morphology
    1. Noun Cases
      1. Patientive
      2. Agentive
      3. Genitive
      4. Instrumental
      5. Locative
      6. Lative
      7. Vocative
    2. Pluralization
    3. Verbal Agreement
    4. Tense
    5. Auxilliary Verbs
    6. Aspect
    7. Negation
    8. Interrogative
      1. Polar Questions
      2. Content Questions
    9. Derivation
  3. Syntax
    1. Word Order
    2. Relative Clauses
  4. Dates & Times
    1. Days & Hours
    2. Weeks
    3. Months
    4. Years
  5. Vocabulary
    1. Numeral System
    2. Kinship Terms
      1. Immediate family
      2. Paternal Extended Family
      3. Maternal Extended Family
  6. Corpus
    1. Lords Prayer


Consonantal Phoneme Inventory

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plosive p, b t, d č, j k, g
Nasal m n ň
Tap r
Fricative f, v s, z š, ž x, ǧ
Approximant w l y

Vowel Inventory

Vowel Harmony

Archiphoneme Front Back
I i i
U u u
E e o
A a a

Consonantal Allophony

(velar is sometimes realized palatally and uvularly)

  1. Unvoiced fricatives voice intervocalically.
  2. Voiced stops devoice word-finally.
  3. Stops are unreleased in coda position.
  4. s and z palatalize to š and ž before front close vowels and in clusters with š or ž
  5. n assimilates to the place of any obstrudent it clusters with.
  6. N assimilates to the place of any uvular or palatal obstrudent it clusters with.
  7. l is velarized in back words.
  8. r is an alveolar approximant in clusters.
  9. r is fricatized at front of words and devoiced+fricatized word finally.
  10. y is rounded before rounded vowels.
  11. w is unrounded before unround vowels.
  12. Obstrudent clusters exhibit voicing assimilation acording to the following rules:
    1. If both consonants are fricatives, the first fricative determines the clusters vociing.
    2. If a fricative comes before a stop, the fricative determiines the cluster’s voicing.
    3. If a stop comes before a fricative, the entire cluster devoices if either is unvoiced.
    4. If both cononants are stops, the second stop determines the cluster’s voicing.


Syllables take the form (C)V(C). Note, this implies that only word-internal clusters are permitted. Words are sylabified according to the following algorithm:

  1. All vowels are marked as nuclei of their own syllables.
  2. Each nucleus is assigned an onset where possible. If a non-initial nucleus has no assignable onset, then y is inserted in front words and w is inserted in back words.
  3. any remaining consonants are assigned as codas of the nucleus to their left.


Charmid exhibits left-edge weight sensitive stress. Closed syllables (i.e. those with a heavy consonant in the coda), are considered heavy, while open syllables are considered light.

Stress falls on the first syllable, unless the first is light and the second is heavy, in which case the second syllable gets primary stress.


Noun Cases



The patientive case marks the object of transitive sentences.



The agentive case marks the subject of transitive sentences.



The genitive is used to indicate a noun modifies another.

It can be used to indicate possession:

It can be used to indicate source:

It can be used to indicate composition:



The instrumental indicates the instrument or means by which an action was completeted.



The locative is used to describe the location of a noun.

Certain prepositions also take the locative.



The lative case marks a source or movement towards.

Certain prepositions take the lative to describe movement.



Used when calling someone’s name, or refering to them.


Plural nouns are formed by mutating vowels and adding an optional prefix. The vowel mutation causes vowels to be raised in a regular fashion. The pluralizing mutation is asymmetrical between back and front vowels, and preserves rounding. The plural prefix is I-.

The dual is formed by using the singular form of the noun and appending -lAr.

Sg. Du. Pl.
A parüš parüšlar (ï)perüš
E pesï pesïlar (ï)pïsï
I mïnïm mïnïmlar (ï)mïnïm
U üšeg üšeglar (ïy)-üšeg
Sg. Du. Pl.
A párá párálár (i)pirá
E ozot ozotlár (iw)uzot
I bikip bikiplár (i)bikip
U buš bušlár (i)buš

Verbal Agreement

Revamping verbal agreement:

Agentive / Patientive marking.

Suffix for person, prefix for number.

Person Agent Patient
1(.INCL) -n -l
1.EXCL -p -v
2 -S -j
3.AN -d -t
3. INAN -k -x


Tense is marked on the verb as a prefix:

Tense Affix Example
Present ∅- rupočok - “It is red”
Past I- ipábon - “I sat”
Future U- usefon - “I will eat”

The present tense can be a continuous state, a gnomic statement.

Auxilliary Verbs

Name Affix Original Meaning Example
Abilitive bUl- to be able to Bulosod pesï. —- “The woman can see”
Dubative šEg- Šogsávukod —- “He might remember”
Necessative EdA- Odapabod aye gürabït. —- “He must sit in temple”
Optative zUt- to wish Zütžïveš ján šüd. —- “may you live a long life”
Mirative mUš- Müšmïnačeš —- “Look how thin you are!”
Desiderive IštE- to want Ïšteyensefedix xïf ïvïž —- “I want you to eat these fish”




The interrogative is formed by the suffix -s(E) to the verb.

Polar Questions

Neutral polar questions are formed by adding the interrogative suffix to a statement without any question words.

Affirmative polar questions are formed with the clause initial question tag word wá, while negative polar questions are formed with the clause initial tag word nes.

Answering polar questions generally uses one of the following response words (however, the question may be answered by an elliptical sentance in the indicative for additional clarity.)

Á - affirmative response to affirmative questions.

Ni - negative response to affirmative & negative questions.

Áši - affirmative response to negative questions.

Mü - a more complicated response which essentially means that the question has no suitable answer. It can be used to reject the premise of the question, or reject a dualistic response.

Content Questions

Content questions are formed from the interrogative by adding a question word (akin to wh-words in english) in their normal place in the sentence.


Word Class: Noun Adjective Adverb
Derived Verb Form: Gerund Participle Converb


Word Order

Word order is strictly Verb Object. That is to say the orders VSO (most common), SVO (not uncommon), VOS (least common).

Relative Clauses

Dates & Times

Days & Hours





si^g - shallow kynyz - prince lol - absurd

Numeral System

  1. yad
  2. eki (/lán)
  3. üS
  4. sey
  5. o
  6. rik
  7. ilge
  8. baC
  9. toquz
  10. sip

Kinship Terms

Need honorific & humble ones

generation from ego Maternal/Paternal gender of the relative relative age of siblings (older, younger)

Immediate family

Relation Term Vocative
Father b”at”u b”ab”a
Mother nemar mama
Older brother god goda
Younger brother t”i t”iy”a
Older sister je jey”a
Younger sister m”i m”iya
Wife kitin (only speaker)
Husband gozma

Paternal Extended Family

Relation Term Vocative
Father’s Father yey”a
Father’s Mother m”a
Father’s Older Brother bobat boba
Father’s Younger Brother ^z”ib”at ^z”iba
Father’s Older Sister g”umar g”uma
Father’s Younger Sister g”uje g”uje

Maternal Extended Family

Relation Term Vocative
Mother’s Father
Mother’s Mother poma
Mother’s Older Brother
Mother’s Younger Brother
Mother’s Older Sister
Mother’s Younger Sister


Lords Prayer

batU”vi”pa, ayezh minarit, sateresh jimesh Our father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name.